Somalia, for the past couple of years might disturbed many around the world, whom care about human lives in general.Seeing some of the video reports about the nations drought situation and several people including children’s in more number dies due to malnutrition which happening currently affects a lot.Malnutrition causes Somali people skin ages like old and the children’s were born under weight.I am sure by penning this article is not going to change anything,but at least can make aware of whats happening there right now.Will there be a nation without central control over its most part of regions? Will there be a nation whose parliment sitting outside the nation and acts from neighbouring country to avoid violence in-house? And the answer is ‘Yes.Its Somalia’. Somalia considered as one of the ‘failed states’ of the world. It’s the poorest and the most violent country in the world .Lets know about this nation in a brief before knowing about the issues the nation facing.
It’s a nation which located on Horn of Africa on its east cost.Somalia has its neighbors as Ethiopia, Kenya and Djibouti.On referring to its history,Somalia has been earlier ruled by Arabs and Portuguese and later been captured by the British and Italy. Somalia got its independence on 1st of July 1960 as a result of when its former British and Italian rule gets merged together.Mogadishu became its capital.Somalia consists of ethnic groups called as Bandu whom where mainly agricultural workers,several thousand Arabs and consists of some Indians and Pakistanis in hundreds.There are two regional administrations exist in northern Somalia,in which one is the self-declared “Republic of Somaliland” in the northwest and the semi-autonomous state of Puntland in the northeast whom run their own affairs.But both were not recognized by foreign governments.
Siad Barre the third president of Somalia whom came to power in 1969 extended his rule till the 1991 collapse of Somalia.Somalia’s official language is Somalia which has been declared on october 1973.Other languages like English,Arabic,Italian were also in usage.Pan-Somalism (Greater Somalia)which refers to the vision of unifying Somalia, Djibouti, the Ogaden of Ethiopia and the North Eastern Province of Kenya is an issue which has been a major cause of past crises between Somalia and its neighbors Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti.Siad Barre ordered bombing of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia in 1988 due to their discontent with his regime caused further hardship.Much of the national budget was devoted to military expenditure, leaving few resources for healthcare, among other services.Soon after this, Barre and his companions looted the national treasury.So by the end of 1980’s, the armed northern opposition to Barre moved into central and south of Somalia.As a result several thousand people left their homes and fled to Ethiopia,Kenya and Djibouti as refugees in search of foods.On December 1990,Baree declared a state of emergency.On January 1991 Barre was forced out of power by opposition armed powers whom consists of combined northern and southern clan-based forces.Ethopia helped and backed these clan forces.Following the 1991 collapse,Somali civil war brokout.The worst situation of Somalia then started wrosening.Like BC and AD,Somalia’s recent history can be focused as before and after Somali civil war of 1991.
In 1992 US Marines landed near Mogadishu ahead of United Nation peace keeping force which sent to restore order and safeguard relief supplies.From then US and UN helped Somalia.But in 1995 UN peacekeeping forces left Somalia as it failed its mission.Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Egypt, Yemen and Libya, all of which have supported various Somali groups and the transitional governments.In 2001 August,UN appeals the world for food aid needed for half a million people in the drought-hit south somalia.Finally in August 2004 establishment of a Transitional Federal Government(TFG) had been made which has been recognized international.In July 2006, Ethiopian forces invaded Somalia and defeated the Islamic Courts Union (ICU).
U.S. has designated foreign terrorist organization al-Shabaab, formerly the military wing nominally under the ICU, became independent of the Courts and launched a multi-faction insurgency after the Courts scattered as a result of the 2006 invasion.Islamist insurgents Al-Shabaab and other extremist forces garnered power in subsequent years through their effective fighting of the Ethiopians, and started harsh implementation of Shari’a law. The UN reports, about 35,000 Somalis whom wanted to escape from the drought, from strict Islamist rules and from the possibility of war have fled to Kenya refugee since the start of 2006.In 2007 US had carried out air strikes in southern Somalia which it says targeted al-Qaeda figures, and which reportedly kill an unknown number of civilians. It is the first known direct US military intervention in Somalia since 1993. The strikes are defended by the then President Yusuf. They are condemned for killing innocent civilians.UN special envoy Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah describes Somalia’s humanitarian crisis the worst in Africa, suggests using international justice to curb the violence.In January 2009, Ethiopian forces completely withdrew from Somalia.Al-Shabaab had allegiance to al-Qaeda.
Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed on January 2009 elected as president and UN backed the government.But the Sharif Sheikh’s controls no more than a few blocks of the capital, Mogadishu, with the help of African Union troops.In 2010 February Al-Shabab formally declares alliance with al-Qaeda, begins to concentrate troops in southern Mogadishu for a major offensive to capture the capital.
Its been hard to digest that Somali people walks week long for medical aid.Some hundreds out of thousand children’s die due to malnutrition.Journalists describes Somalia as “Africa’s deadliest country” when they crossed their border limits .Currently there is no supreme court functioning and any legal system and there is no election process.There is no political party which exists.Due to lack of governance Somali pirates grew rapidly and stretched their operations far away as the Gulf of Oman and the western Indian Ocean.Absence of security and lack of maintenance and improvement are major issues at most Somali ports.There were no railways in Somalia. Internal transportation is limited to trucks and busses. Also there were little maintenance for years and have seriously deteriorated.
Somalia’s Economy depends on livestock like camel,goat, sheep.Somalia Lacks natural resources, and Drought worsening the situation.Somalia’s energy consists of unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, uranium, copper, salt, likely petroleum and natural gas reserves.Only Mogadishu and Hargeisa who were major cities of Somalia has TV stations.Cellular phone service readily available but not the landlines.
Somalia desperately needs national reconciliation, and to obtain international economic assistance.Years of fighting between rival warlords and an inability to deal with famine and disease have led to the deaths of up to one million people.There are lack of funding and human resources to tackle issues in Somalia.The international community has failed to support the government.The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimates that around 1300 to 1500 people from Somalia crossing their borders.People flee to Kenya’s Dadaab, the world’s largest refugee camp.
One good information i came to know about Somalia is, it has one of the lowest HIV infection rates on the African continent. This is due to the Muslim nature of Somali society and the dedication of Somalis in following Islamic morals.The world has to wake up and listen to the crying voices of Somalia and immediate relief has to be done.World has to stop the Rising Violence in Somalia,without which any NGO’s , the UN can’t make their relief operations completely and there is no safety for its staffs too.Most of us concerns about ourself,and the same each country does.We have to broaden our views and concern for others too.There is a desperate need of Che Guevara’s for the people of Somalia, especially for the children’s.